I love mathematics.
Quite narrow-minded, very black and white, it has the subtlety of a sledgehammer.
With the basic optical microscope that was available to Charles Darwin, a single cell looked like a blob of homogenous cytoplasm, something he could imagine possibly forming randomly. Without a doubt, had he had access to the electron microscopes of today, Darwin would have immediately recognised the fallacy of his assumption and discarded his theory. The highly specific language DNA uses to create a protein with its four letter alphabet can’t have a single ‘spelling’ mistake.
The probability of randomly choosing each of the four letters in the correct sequence to produce the simplest single protein of only 50 amino acids is so small as to be virtually zero. It is akin to a blindfolded person randomly choosing, with only one attempt, just one single marked atom out of 10 billion universes our size.
Oh, I forgot to mention that amino acids can have a ‘left handed’ orientation or a ‘right handed’ orientation. All biological amino acids are ‘left handed.’ The probability of randomly choosing 50 consecutive amino acids that are all left handed is around 1000 trillion to 1.
So to randomly form just one simple protein, our intrepid blindfolded person now has to choose a single atom out of a trillion trillion universes.
And how many proteins are there in a single cell? 42 million.